ansible-vault is used to encrypt variable definitions, keys, and other sensitive data so that they can be securely accessed from a playbook. Ansible 2 (not yet released) has some useful security improvements to the ansible-vault command-line interface.
Don't write plaintext to disk
Earlier, there was no way to use ansible-vault without writing sensitive plaintext to disk (either by design, or as an editor byproduct). Now one can use “ansible-vault encrypt” and “ansible-vault decrypt” as filters to read plaintext from stdin or write it to stdout using the new --output option.
# Interactive use: stdin → x (like gpg) $ ansible-vault encrypt --output x # Non-interactive use, for scripting $ pwgen -1|ansible-vault encrypt --output newpass # Decrypt to stdout $ ansible-vault decrypt vpnc.conf --output -|vpnc -
These changes retain backwards compatibility with earlier invocations of ansible-vault and make it possible to securely automate the creation and use of vault data. In every case, the input or output file can be set to “-” to use stdin or stdout.
A related change: “ansible-vault view” now feeds plaintext to the pager directly on stdin and never writes plaintext to disk. (But “ansible-vault edit” still writes plaintext to disk.)
The vault accepts a --vault-password-file option to be specified in order to avoid the interactive password prompt and confirmation.
With Ansible 2, “ansible-vault rekey” accepts a --new-vault-password-file option that behaves the same way, so it's possible to rekey an already-encrypted vault file automatically, if you pass in a script that writes a new vault password to its stdout. (This operation also doesn't leak plaintext to disk.)
An incidental bugfix also makes it possible to pass multiple filenames to ansible-vault subcommands (i.e., it's now possible to encrypt, decrypt, and rekey more than one file at once–this behaviour was documented, but didn't work).
(Unfortunately, many more important vault changes didn't make it to this release.)