The Advisory Boar
Renault India introduced the Duster AWD in late 2014, and Hassath and I
bought one just days after it was released. We liked it immediately, and
wrote a detailed review after one
year. At the time of writing, our car is doing fine after five years of
unrelenting offroad use.
Time to upgrade?
The Duster retains a dedicated following, but attracts fewer new buyers
with each passing year. Its outstanding ride quality and surprising AWD
competence are still unmatched in its segment (the Mahindra Thar is much
less usable on-road, and the Jeep Compass AWD costs as much as a Duster
and Thar put together); but the AWD market in India was always a niche,
and the Duster is now increasingly described as “dated” and lagging its
competition in terms of features and interior comforts.
Renault chose not to bring its second-generation 2017 Duster to India,
and was content to release the occasional “facelift”, most recently in
July 2019. Meanwhile, grim rumours began to circulate about the future
of the Duster AWD in India after the April 2020 deadline for adoption of
BS6 emission standards (or even Renault's future in India, depending on
how grim you wanted to be).
In October 2019, the Duster AWD took top spot in Autocar India's list of
“cars to buy before they die”.
Alas, the latest facelift did not endear itself to us. The AWD variant,
formerly available only in the top-spec RxZ configuration, was relegated
to the “RxS(O)” line and stripped of various features to reduce costs.
Some of the differences we didn't care about (cosmetic changes), some we
could live without (e.g., the touchscreen, electrically foldable outside
rearview mirrors, reverse parking camera), and some we were willing to
sacrifice (e.g., cruise control, speed limiter).
But that left us with the infuriating omission of the rear wiper and
washer and height-adjustable driver's seat with lumbar support. We need
both and were prepared to pay more for them, but neither feature could
be retro-fitted onto the RxS(O) car (and we couldn't do without AWD).
Conclusion—keep the 2014 RxZ AWD, don't buy a new one.
RxZ AWD: the last of its kind
At least, that would have been the conclusion if it hadn't been for
Hassath. At her urging, someone at the dealership went to consult the
inventory, and found a pre-facelift 2019 Duster RxZ AWD at the factory
in Chennai. Just one.
At first, I was not a fan of buying an "older car", but Hassath asked me
to enumerate specific reasons to avoid it. After much thought, the only
objection I could come up with was… “But it's brown”.
And that's how we came to buy the very last pre-facelift 2019 RxZ AWD
available anywhere in India. And it's actually quite a lovely brown.
Headline feature comparison
Here's an armchair comparison of some major features between the 2014
RxZ AWD (our old car), the 2019 RxZ AWD (our new car), and the 2019
RxS(O) AWD (the latest available model).
This table omits features present in all three models (e.g., ABS+EBD+BA)
as well as differences from the brochure that I didn't find interesting
(e.g., the colour of the inside door handles).
||2014 RxZ AWD
||2019 RxZ AWD
||2019 RxS(O) AWD
|Front fog lamps
|Rear wiper and washer
|Height adjustable front seat
|Height adjustable driver's seat
with lumbar support
|Driver's seat armrest
|One-touch driver's window
|Automatic climate control
|Reverse parking camera
|New MediaNAV touchscreen
|Projector headlamps, LED DRLs
One minor change deserves special mention: the rear window controls have
been moved to the front of the rear armrest, which fixes a long-standing
annoyance for rear passengers who accidentally lowered the window with
their elbow. This might be our favourite new feature.
Not all of the differences above were initially clear to us. The rear
wiper and washer and the height-adjustable driver's seat by themselves
were enough to tip the scales in favour of the older model. We realised
later that we would get automatic climate control and a reverse parking
camera, and discovered only when we received the car that it had the
new-style touchscreen with Android Auto support.
Thanks to Hassath, we didn't lose any features we already had, we got a
few nice surprises, and missed out on only two relatively minor features
from the facelift. In short, we got lucky.
Renault has made various design changes to the original Duster, and we
don't particularly care for any of them. Since the Duster was launched
in 2012, their aesthetic sense has never strayed too far from “can we
make it even more shiny somehow?”
Many of these changes can be seen in the Team-BHP reviews of the
(which is what we had), and
(which was also only a “facelift”, and looks very much like the 2019 RxZ AWD).
Here are some of the changes we've noticed, in no particular order.
All three models have different alloy wheels. We still like the original
bold five-spoke “anthracite” design best, both for its distinctive looks
and because it's easiest to clean. We don't mind the generic-looking but
inoffensive (no red centre) in-between design that we ended up with. The
facelift introduces distinctive “diamond cut” alloys, but they're a bit
too busy and shiny for our tastes. (Also, diamond cut makes me think of
an addictive but crumbly South Indian fried snack, and I'd just as soon
keep those away from the car.)
The plastic front and rear skid plates have both become larger and more
prominent. The unobtrusive black-and-silver one in front has now become
a flamboyant contrasting silver moustache with a nicer-looking mesh for
the air dam. The facelift goes back to a darker silver colour for both.
The turn indicators have moved to the outside mirrors, and their place
on the body is taken by a stupid shiny badge that says “RXZ” (nowhere
else is this X capitalised). If you happen to drive at night with the
mirrors folded in, remember to budget an extra few seconds per right
turn to recover from temporary blindness after switching on the
Speaking of shiny badges, the rear hatch now has only a “dCi 4WD” badge
instead of the separate RxZ, dCi, and 4WD badges on the old car. The big
chrome plate across the hatch says “Duster” in raised letters instead of
embossed ones. Also, the wider roof rails now say “Duster” (as does the
dashboard, just above the glove compartment).
All three models have different steering wheels, but the differences are
minimal. The original design was plain and unremarkable. The one we got
is nearly identical, but the horn pad works better (no more presses that
fail to activate the horn). The latest design may be a bit nicer to the
touch, but tries too hard to make the steering-mounted controls look
Both older models have a large cubbyhole above the glove compartment,
and a smaller one above the centre console. The facelift does away with
these in favour of cooled storage and a closed console. Inexplicably, it
does so in a way that still fails to provide a secure flat
surface to place mugs of tea on. The lack of storage is a serious
impediment—the front cup holders are so tiny and so close to the
controls that they can be used to store at most a few coins or perhaps a
phone standing on one side. We're glad to have both cubbyholes.
The facelift has two rounded-off rectangular central AC vents on the
console, but retains a round vent on each side. The original had four
unremarkable round vents with silver outlines and matte-finished dark
vanes. The model we got has four round vents too, but the glossy vanes
are of appallingly poor quality. They feel flimsy and unpleasant to use,
and badly let down the otherwise pleasant interior.
The newer models are upholstered in “Deco Brown” fabric (shades of beige
that go nicely with the woodland brown exterior), where the old car had
shades of dark grey. The new seats look nice enough to be worth some
extra effort to keep them clean.
The outside rearview mirror controls (adjustment only, not folding) have
moved from their original position below the parking brake to the block
of controls on the driver's door. This doesn't really matter.
That brings us to the end of the comparisons that we can do without
starting the car.
What's it like to drive?
The new car has the same engine, the same chassis, the same suspension,
and the same steering as the old car. Even the horn sounds the same! So
I expected it to feel exactly like the old car to drive. I was wrong.
Somewhere along the line, Renault tweaked the gear ratios significantly.
I don't know when, or for which models, but the result makes the new car
even easier to drive in the mountains.
The old setup was upshift-happy. You could start from a standstill and
be in fifth gear in under a minute at a speed slightly above 40km/hour.
If your engine speed dropped to about 1500rpm or lower, you would have
to drop a gear or two briefly to build up to a cruising speed again.
The new car is very different. The 3rd and 4th gears in particular are
tolerant of a wider range of engine speeds. You can hold on to them for
longer and rev higher before you have to shift up. More importantly, you
can hold on while the engine revs much lower before you need to
shift down. Climbing hairpin turns that we used to take in 2nd gear now
feel comfortable in 3rd. You can slow down for traffic or a speed
breaker and ease back onto the throttle from 1000rpm or so without
shifting down from 3rd. You can do the same thing in 4th gear, so long
as you are careful to accelerate gently and don't need to climb uphill
right after the obstacle. On good roads that allow for slightly higher
speeds, you can spend a lot of time even in fifth gear. It's a truly
Of course, nothing prevents you from dropping gears and getting onto the
power early—as the gear shift indicator suggests—but with the long and
awkward clutch travel, it's nice to have the option of a more relaxed
driving style and also benefit from increased fuel efficiency. Dropping
to such low engine speeds and trying to recover without downshifting
would result in a lot of juddering in the old car. The new one remains
composed. The difference is particularly noticeable on mountain roads,
but the new gear ratios should also help in traffic and other situations
that call for frequent speed changes.
The inevitable flip side of this change is that the car takes longer to
reach highway cruising speeds. Where the old car was sprightly and felt
eager to accelerate into the triple digits, the new one is more sedate
and likes to take some time to think about it. Once at that speed, it
feels as relaxed and composed as ever, but you might need to change
gears a bit more often if you intend to dart aggressively through
openings in traffic instead of just cruising along.
We spend a lot more time driving in the mountains than on highways, so
this arrangement suits us perfectly. A gradual increase in the number of
roads in India where one can use cruise control as something more than a
gimmick also helps to accept more relaxed highway manners.
Apart from this, the car feels utterly familiar. The driving dynamics
are still the same: negligible body roll through corners, stable and
responsive handling, and excellent ride quality.
Our review of the 2014 Duster is
still relevant for background information.
Apollo claims that the stock
215/65R16 tyres are all-terrain tyres, but they just don't look like it.
They're obviously strongly road-biased, and the manufacturer is probably
counting on most drivers to do no more off-road driving than an
occasional foray through mud or wet grass. Unfortunately, this
assumption does not apply to our driving conditions at all.
Still, these tyres seem comfortable enough and behave well on road, at
least while they're new. We decided to keep them for however long they
last before switching to something with a more aggressive tread (such as
the Yokohama Geolandar A/T tyres we fitted on the old car).
The old car had the
worst AC unit we had ever encountered.
It bears repeating here that the redesigned AC vent flaps are so cheap
and flimsy that they do not give a good first impression, but it's too
soon to say much about the AC itself.
The AC controls don't look nearly as nice as the European version (which
gets three knurled silver-and-black control knobs), and while they don't
feel nearly as bad as the vents, they are only a few rungs lower on the
ladder of nastiness. If you like LEDs, the AC controls have about two
dozen between the two knobs and eight buttons. One of these buttons is
marked “A/C off”, and it has a red LED that lights up when the A/C is
Reverse parking camera
The reverse parking camera does the minimum required to tick a checkbox
on the brochure. It's an improvement over parking sensors alone, but we
would have preferred a clearer and brighter image with guidelines that
responded to steering changes.
At night, the image is just barely usable if you use your brake lights
to illuminate the scene. The reversing lights are not nearly enough to
provide any useful detail.
New MediaNAV system
The new MediaNAV is uglier than the old one, but works fine. All we want
is to play music from a phone via Bluetooth, and it still does that. The
system seems to respond more quickly when you touch the screen.
There is still no dedicated mute button near the screen, and the system
now hesitates for a moment when you use the controls mounted behind the
steering wheel to mute the audio. On the other hand, going back to play
the last audio track used to take some frantic spinning of the selector
wheel, but a quick touch now suffices.
We don't care about the inbuilt navigation at all (we never used it),
but we can use Google Maps directly on the touchscreen now, thanks to
Android Auto support. Unfortunately, the USB port is placed at the top
right corner of the screen, and when you plug in a cable, a bit of the
connector will block your view of the corner (where the time is
displayed). Then, depending on where you put your phone, the cable might
obscure some other bits. This unforgivably thoughtless bit of design can
be mitigated by buying a cable with a special right-angle USB connector.
The physical AC controls have LED indicators, but the console displays a
slightly-delayed and redundant notification of every change anyway. You
can turn this off in the display settings.
The MediaNAV manual mentions a “Vehicle” menu with “Eco” and “4x4 info”
(realtime compass and inclinometer display) options, but this unit does
not have it.
The stock headlamps on the old car were an immediate disappointment. The
new ones are much better (still halogen bulbs, and without the projector
setup introduced by the facelift).
The one-touch control for the driver's window is handy when you want it,
and annoying when you don't. I'm not sure yet which happens more often
when I'm driving.
The 2019 RxZ AWD is a welcome improvement over the 2014 RxZ AWD: many
good things remain unchanged, some things are better, and only the AC
vents are unquestionably worse. The Duster remains a capable car, well
suited to our needs, at a reasonable price point.
In short, we got lucky.
My annoyance at tortured translations between Hindi and English is not
confined to the strange
inverted use of until
Here are some phrases that have suffered terribly in translation in the
कार्य प्रगति पर है
This is the usual translation of “work in progress” on road signs, but
means “progress” in a larger sense—think “scientific progress”, not
“the progress bar is stuck at 95%”. And
is a very grandiose word to apply to construction work, but it's just
the sort of Sanskrit-derived word that the powers that be love to slip
into official signs as if they were nothing out of the ordinary.
means “on” in the sense of putting one thing on another. So if you were
to translate the sign back into English, “The work is on the progress”
wouldn't be too far off. Nowhere else is
used in a way to suggest that you can put things on it (or in it).
It would be perfectly natural and unambigous to write
“काम चल रहा है”,
but that's just not officious enough to satisfy anyone.
Hindi newspapers use this term to mean “private hospital”, but
would be better translated as “personal”. It doesn't convey the private
vs public sense of being the opposite of a
(Government hospital). When I read about someone going to a
I always imagine them going to their own hospital (which I
would too, if I had one).
In this case, I don't know of a better way to say it.
My headphone cable has become flaky, so I've been using a small external
speaker for a while. I now need to change my volume settings so often
that running alsamixer in a terminal each time was beginning to annoy
me. So I looked for a systray-based mixer (I use xmobar with xmonad),
and I found volumeicon
(packaged in Debian as volumeicon-alsa).
I really like volumeicon. The default behaviour is perfectly sensible.
Click the icon to mute, click again to unmute. Hover to see the current
volume level, use the scroll wheel to change it. Middle click to "Open
Mixer", which runs alsamixer in a terminal. Right click to set
What's more, the preferences are also remarkably sensible. You can pick
the ALSA device and channel to control, and there's a straightforward
menu to change the appearance and behaviour of the icon.
It's been quite a while since I encountered a new program that did
exactly what I wanted with so little fuss.
I use xmonad, which needs ghc.
On my Debian 9/stretch machine, the manpages-dev package is declared to
break libbsd-dev, which ghc depends on. So in practice, one must choose
between xmonad and manpages-dev, which has annoyed me for a long time.
Today I tracked down a
related Debian bug report
and happened to notice that my libbsd-dev 0.8.3 was just one minor
revision too old to avoid the conflict declared by manpages-dev 4.10-2:
$ apt-cache show manpages-dev|grep Breaks
Breaks: libbsd-dev (<< 0.8.4-1), manpages (<< 4.13-3)
I also noticed that
packages were available in unstable/sid, and followed the
instructions to create a backport
of the package to stretch.
$ dget -x http://http.debian.net/debian/pool/main/libb/libbsd/libbsd_0.9.1-1.dsc
$ cd libbsd-0.9.1
$ sudo mk-build-deps --install --remove
$ dch --local ~bpo9+ --distribution stretch-backports "Rebuild for stretch-backports."
$ dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc
I installed the updated libbsd0 and libbsd-dev packages, and was then
able to install manpages-dev for the first time in… several months, at
I have manpages again!
I, too, have an old #4 smoothing plane that my grandfather gave me.
Unlike some of the other tools I inherited from him, this plane is
wholly unburdened by any pedigree—or even a manufacturer's name. My
grandfather bought it in Calcutta when I was eleven years old. I knew
nothing about planes, but I used it happily for a few years. Then I
discovered computers, and the plane went into a box.
Now, nearly three decades later, I need a plane again.
This is my story of restoring an old plane to the point where I could
use it. If there's anything to take away from this article, it is that,
with sufficient effort, even a poorly-manufactured plane may eventually
be made to work well. Was it worth the effort? Well, I have a working
plane now. I know my grandfather would have been pleased.
As a first approximation, restoring old tools consists of taking them
apart and rubbing the parts against a variety of abrasive substances
(sometimes for hours) to remove rust and reshape them until they look
and work better.
To learn about plane restoration, I recommend starting with this
video tutorial by Paul Sellers,
whose focus is to quickly restore a plane to working order. Here's a
diagram of bench plane parts;
the rest of this article assumes you are familiar with these terms.
The plane wasn't in terrible condition to begin with. Once I wiped off
the dust with an oily rag, it took only a few minutes to get rid of a
few spots of surface rust on the body with sandpaper. There was some
rust on the plane iron too, which I sanded off after soaking briefly
in a dilute vinegar solution.
There were two things wrong with the plane iron: it was not very good,
and it had been sharpened many times by an eleven-year-old me.
Fixing the damage I had done in the past was not as difficult as I had
feared. The bevel was uneven and rounded, there were nicks in the
cutting edge, and it wasn't very sharp. Thanks to
my diamond sharpening plates, it was
just a matter of time and practice to grind and polish a new bevel,
relieve the corners, and put a fine camber on the cutting edge.
The back of the iron was nowhere near flat, and the steel was very hard.
It took several sessions on the extra-coarse plate to flatten the (last
few centimetres of the) back, leaving only two low spots on the corners
where the grinding wheel in the factory must have dug in. Removing them
would have meant removing a lot of steel, so I stopped there. I did try
tapping the back of the iron with a hammer to create a low spot in the
centre, so that only the edges would need to be ground flat, but the
steel was so hard that it had no noticeable effect.
(Normal sharpening during use subsequently removed enough steel from the
cutting edge that the low spots on the back are no longer apparent.)
The leading edge of the cap iron fit poorly against the back of the
plane iron. I ground it flat on the diamond plates to eliminate the
gaps, and lightly polished the upper surface. I also filed off a sharp
exposed point on the thread of the captive screw, which always managed
to find its way under my fingernail when I was reattaching the cap iron
to the sharpened plane iron.
The lever cap was so poorly machined that it gets its own section here.
The cam on the lever was shaped wrong, so that it couldn't be released
at all once it was locked down, and I had to loosen the screw on the
body to remove the lever cap every time I wanted to sharpen the plane
iron. Worse still, the screw didn't hold the lever cap securely—the cap
would slide around as I tightened the screw, and end up crooked or
off-centred. Even after the screw was tight, the lever cap would
sometimes slip off the correct position and come loose.
I flattened the leading edge of the lever cap to improve contact with
the cap iron. I tried to file the cam to the correct shape, but I didn't
get it right, because it wasn't possible to remove the cam, and access
was limited by the flat spring and the body of the lever cap. The best I
could do was to make it work "backwards": to lock down in the raised
position, and release when lowered. This is rather annoying, but it does
seem to work.
As for the other problem, the only solution I have is to hold down the
cap firmly when tightening the screw. With the modified cam, at least I
don't always need a screwdriver handy to remove the plane iron
The right answer may be to find a used lever cap on eBay.
Body and sole
The sole of the plane was not flat. I put some #150 grit silicon carbide
paper on a sheet of float glass and rubbed the plane (with the blade on,
but retracted) across it a few times to identify low spots. I had to use
the extra coarse diamond plate and #60 grit belt sander paper to flatten
the sole just enough to bring heel, toe, throat, and edges into level. I
then worked my way back up the grits to polish out the scratches. I also
relieved the edges of the sole and heel on the sandpaper.
The face of the frog was not flat. I used #150 grit paper on float glass
to knock down some of the high spots, but decided it wasn't worth it to
pursue a couple of low spots along the edge. I cleaned up the contact
surfaces along the bottom of the frog and on the body too.
The throat opening was not finished evenly, and it had some nicks in it.
I used a flat file to remove some of the irregularities, but decided not
to remove as much steel as it would take to make the throat straight and
square and work out all the nicks. The opening was quite wide to begin
with, and the remaining nicks seemed to not matter much in practice.
The wooden parts (tote and front knob) were in good condition, with no
cracks or surface damage, so I didn't need to do anything to them.
Things I didn't fix
The sides of the body were not square to the sole. Sandpaper on float
glass would have fixed it, but my fingers were threatening to fall off
after flattening the sole and the frog, so I didn't bother. I may need
to revisit this once I start using the plane on a shooting board.
There's no good way to close down the throat. The opening was wide to
begin with, and I had to file it down further to remove irregularities.
Advancing the frog causes chatter because the contact points between the
frog and body are sketchy. Applying enough abrasives could, in theory,
solve this problem, but it's not worth it.
The adjustment knob used to set the depth of cut is a bit awkward to
use, partly because the lever cap needs to be cinched down so tightly.
Another oddity is that it is on a screw with a normal thread; I believe
it's usually reversed, so that rotating the knob clockwise advances the
blade. On my plane, it's the other way around. Nothing to do about that
but get used to it.
The lateral adjustment lever just doesn't work well. The mechanism has a
lot of slop, isn't quite centred, and goes further on one side than the
other. I don't know how to fix that.
My plane will never compete with the old Stanley or new Lie-Nielsen #4s
of this world, but it does work. I can set it finely enough to take
full-width shavings a few hundredths of a millimeter thick, leaving a
mirror-smooth finish. Occasionally, I can even plane knotty cypress
against the grain without tearing out or leaving gouge marks on the
surface. That's far beyond anything I expected from it.
Is it a plane I will use forever? No. But it's a plane I will always
remember, and that makes it a pretty special gift.
Here's how I configured Postfix to relay mail from email@example.com through
smtp-relay.gmail.com:587 using the credentials set up for firstname.lastname@example.org
on Google Apps.
There are three parts to this: making Postfix relay mail based on the
sender address, teaching it to authenticate to gmail, and configuring
gmail to accept the relayed mail. (Postfix was already configured to
send outgoing mail directly.)
I created /etc/postfix/relay_hosts with the following contents:
Then I ran «postmap /etc/postfix/relay_hosts» and set
SMTP SASL authentication
I created /etc/postfix/sasl_passwords (mode 0600) with the following
Then I ran «postmap /etc/postfix/sasl_passwords» and added the following
smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
That enables SMTP AUTH in the Postfix SMTP client and tells Postfix
where to look up the username and password for a domain.
Gmail will accept SMTP AUTH only in a TLS session, so
TLS client support
must be configured in Postfix (which means setting
to "may"). But even once that's done, gmail advertises only the
following authentication mechanisms:
250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN XOAUTH2 PLAIN-CLIENTTOKEN OAUTHBEARER XOAUTH
I didn't want to worry about OAUTH, so I was left with PLAIN was the
only reasonable choice. Postfix will not use plaintext authentication
mechanisms by default, so I also had to remove "noplaintext" from the
default value for
As an additional precaution, I also set
to change the default TLS policy from "may" to "encrypt" for
When I tried to send mail through the relay, Postfix wasn't able to
SASL authentication failure: No worthy mechs found
SASL authentication failed; cannot authenticate to server smtp-relay.gmail.com[220.127.116.11]: no mechanism available
Google considers password authentication to be “less secure”, and you
have to explicitly enable it on the
less secure apps settings page.
There are some
but I was happy to take the path of least resistance here.
I did that and tried again, only for mail to bounce with this error:
Invalid credentials for relay [18.104.22.168]. The IP address you've
registered in your G Suite SMTP Relay service doesn't match domain of
the account this email is being sent from. If you are trying to relay
mail from a domain that isn't registered under your G Suite account
or has empty envelope-from, you must configure your mail server
either to use SMTP AUTH to identify the sending domain or to present
one of your domain names in the HELO or EHLO command. For more
information, please visit https://support.google.com/a/answer/6140680#invalidcred
This message is misleading, as I found out by using openssl's s_client
to establish a TLS session and then authenticating by hand. SMTP AUTH
succeeded, but MAIL FROM was subsequently rejected.
I followed the
link in the message,
which led me to the
SMTP relay service
The Google Apps admin console doesn't use sensible URLs, but I followed
the breadcrumb trail to an “Advanced settings” page where I was able to
edit the SMTP relay service settings to set “Allowed senders” to “Only
addresses in my domains”, as well as to “Require SMTP authentication”
and “Require TLS encryption”. Remember to “Save” the changes.
The error I got was because the “Only accept mail from specified IP
addresses” option was checked for this particular domain. I could have
added the IP address of my server to the list, but SMTP authentication
was what was I wanted to use anyway.
One of my contributions to Postgres 9.5 (back in 2015) was a two-stage
optimisation of the CRC computation code. First, switching to a faster
algorithm; and second, to use the Intel SSE4.2 CRC instructions where
available. I was delighted to have the opportunity to implement such a
dramatic performance improvement (CRC computation used to be at the top
of the profile on every streaming replica by some distance).
Optimising something by writing assembly (even if it was only a couple
of instructions, later replaced by compiler intrinsics) is always fun,
but here the algorithm change was also a substantial improvement, in
that it used a lookup table to process eight input bytes at a time. This
technique is known as “slicing-by-N” (where N depends on the size of the
lookup table), and was originally described here:
Frank L. Berry, Michael E. Kounavis, "Novel Table Lookup-Based
Algorithms for High-Performance CRC Generation", IEEE Transactions on
Computers, vol. 57, no. , pp. 1550-1560, November 2008,
This paper, having been published in a prestigious IEEE journal, is of
course not easily available for download (not when I looked in 2015, and
apparently not today). I was able to find what I needed to implement the
technique thanks to other reference materials, notably including
Stephan Brumme's Fast CRC32 page
(now considerably expanded since 2015), but I never actually got to read
what Messrs. Kounavis and Berry had to say about their technique.
Recently, I had occasion to look at CRC32 implementations again, and I
found a different paper that I had looked at briefly the last
Cyclic Redundancy Check Generation Using Multiple Lookup Table Algorithms
by Indu I. and Manu T.S. from TKM Institute of Technology, Kollam, in
Kerala (my mother's home state in South India). I remember noting that
there was something odd about the paper, but not having time enough to
give it more than a passing glance. This time, I spent a while reading
it, and it's certainly very odd.
ABSTRACT: The primary goal of this paper is to generate cyclic
redundancy check (CRC) using multiple lookup table algorithms. A compact
architecture of CRC algorithm (Slicing-by-N algorithm) based on multiple
lookup tables (LUT) approach is proposed. This algorithm can ideally
read large amounts of data at a time, while optimizing their memory
requirement to meet the constraints of specific computer architectures.
The focus of this paper is the comparison of two algorithms. These two
algorithms are Slicing by-N-algorithm and Sarwate algorithm, in which
slicing by-N-algorithm can read arbitrarily 512 bits at a time, but
Sarwate algorithm, which can read only 8 bits at a time. This paper
proposes the generation of CRC using slicing by 8 algorithm. In this,
message bits are chunked to 8 blocks. All are processed at a time.
Proposed Slicing-by-8 algorithm can read 64 bits of input data at a time
and it doubles the performance of existing implementations of Sarwate
Is this paper claiming to have invented the slicing-by-N
algorithm? It's hard to tell from the blather in the abstract, but going
through the remaining blather (and effort that, in retrospect, I cannot
in good conscience commend to the reader) suggests that this is indeed
Recently time is the major concern. So in order to
process large amount of data at a time, Multiple Lookup
based approach is more efficient. Multiple Lookup based
approach contains five CRC algorithms, called Slicing by-N
algorithm (N ϵ 4, 8, 16, 32, 64), which is used to read up to
512 bits at a time. So performance of the system should be
increased. Here proposing Slicing by-8 algorithm to read 64
bits at a time. Here proposed an efficient design of CRC
generator using Slicing by-N algorithm (N=8). In this
algorithm, input message stream is sliced into N slices and
each slice has 8 bits. So using this Slicing by-8 algorithm, it
can read 64 bits at a time and it triples the performance of
existing implementation of Sarwate algorithm.
Oho, so it triples the performance of existing implementations of the
Sarwate algorithm, does it? Funny the abstract claims a paltry doubling
in performance then. The paper goes on to describe CRC computation with
block diagrams, and then has some more blather about VHDL and MATLAB and
some screenshots of “simulation waveforms”, all of which seems to amount
to showing that the various CRC algorithms produce the same results and
that processing more input bytes at a time is faster than not doing so.
I made judicious use of the fast-forward button to reach the conclusion,
which begins with
The design of CRC generator using Multiple Look Up based approach is
proposed. In this paper, slicing by-8 algorithm is designed, and
compares this algorithm with the existing algorithms, that is, with
Sarwate algorithm and LFSR method.
So yeah, they're claiming in a slightly roundabout way to have invented
the slicing-by-8 CRC algorithm. However, the authors cite the Kounavis
and Berry paper anyway, perhaps so that any criticism can be blamed on
some sort of unfortunate misunderstanding. I didn't find any citations
of this paper in the minute or two I spent on the search, but Citeseer
and Researchgate link to it, and it's quite prominent in search results,
so it's probably only a matter of time before someone cites it.
The paper was published in "International Journal of Modern Engineering
Research” (ijmer.com) in 2012; the journal's name alone reminded me of
the scammers, Academic Journals Online,
whom I encountered a few years ago. IJMER does not, however, appear to
be one of the AJO journals. Perhaps it's a second cousin.
Unfortunately, the authors include no contact information in the paper,
so I was not able to send them a link to this page.
I wanted to restore a clean Raspbian image on the Raspberry Pi that was
running in the battery room. I could have gone and got it, but I would
have had to climb a ladder.
So I thought “Why not just remount the filesystems 'ro' and dd the image
I remounted / and /boot (after "systemctl isolate rescue.target", which
stopped sshd but left my ssh session running) read-only, and dd'ed the
image from an NFS mount onto /dev/mmcblk0. The dd worked fine. I used
/proc/sysrq-trigger afterwards to sync and reboot (I couldn't run any
binaries after the dd, which wasn't much of a surprise). The machine
fell off the network as expected…
…and never came back up. So I climbed up the ladder and brought the Pi
down to my desk and plugged it into my monitor. It did start to boot,
and got a fair distance before the kernel panicked. I didn't bother to
try to figure out the problem, just extracted and rewrote the SD card;
and all was well thereafter.
But I still think my plan ought to have worked.
The mains power supply in Lweshal is dismal.
There are frequent outages, of course—the transformer in the village
blew up earlier this year, and we had no power for a week. Two or three
times in the summer (when forest fires were burning everywhere) a tree
fell on the line and cut off power for a few days. There's a big fuse
near Mauna which seems to keep melting down. But none of that is really
a surprise in a remote area.
The unpleasant surprise was how bad the supply could be when there's no
outage. For some reason, extreme voltages are quite common. I've seen
the mains voltage at a record low of 25V for several hours once, and
we've had whole days when it stayed around 60–90V—voltages so low that
the electricity meter stayed off, even though our 9W LEDs inside would
light up. Free power!
High voltages don't last nearly as long, but we've seen spikes of 300V
and more on occasion. It's difficult to decide which condition is more
destructive. High voltages fry appliances, but persistent low voltages
where some lights appear to work encourage people to draw more current
than their circuits can safely carry—and in a place where people use
1.0mm² wire even for 16A circuits, and nobody has any earthing, that
isn't something to be taken lightly.
Either way, voltage fluctuations blew up our UPS twice. The first time
we didn't have any sort of voltage regulator installed. After having to
pay for a new logic board, we installed a custom-made "constant voltage
transformer" (a big auto-transformer with a voltage meter). It clicked a
lot to indicate its displeasure, and we had to take it back to the shop
to make it cut off the output altogether if the voltage was too low (but
why didn't it do that to begin with?). Then the next fluctuation killed
the UPS again.
In such a dire situation, only a device with a genuine superhero name
could possibly save us, and the
certainly delivers on that front. I bought one from Amazon, and we
installed it upstream of the main distribution board. It doesn't do any
voltage regulation, just cuts off the output beyond the predefined low
and high voltage thresholds. Here is it in action.
It has worked correctly in various low-voltage conditions (we've had a
130V supply for most of the past two days). It has high- and low-voltage
bypass modes that I have never tried, and an optional output timer that
restores power to the house only if the power stays on for two minutes.
It's useful that it displays the input voltage (even when the output is
cut off), and the 32A circuit breaker is very handy when we're working
on the distribution board.
Other Amazon customers assured me that the device makes no noise during
operation, but of course it does. It clicks away merrily, but it's a
small price to pay for reliable voltage limits.
Update (2017-04-23): Our low- and high-voltage records for the
Accurex are 43V and 592V respectively (both voltages persisted for some
hours before returning to normal).
My mother called to tell me that people were complaining that mail sent
to her address at one of my domains (menon-sen.com) was bouncing. Here's
an excerpt from the bounce message she sent me:
DNS Error: 27622840 DNS type 'mx' lookup of menon-sen.com responded
with code SERVFAIL
I thought it was just a temporary DNS failure, but just for completeness
I tried to look up the MX for the domain, and got a SERVFAIL response. I
checked WHOIS for the domain and was horrified to find this:
Name Server: FAILED-WHOIS-VERIFICATION.NAMECHEAP.COM
Name Server: VERIFY-CONTACT-DETAILS.NAMECHEAP.COM
In a near-panic (because this meant email to one of my work addresses
was also being bounced), I checked a bunch of stuff: No, the whois
details for the domain were not incorrect (nor had they been changed
recently). No, Namecheap had not sent me any whois verification mail
about the domain. No, Namecheap had not sent me any notification that it
was going to suspend the domain. No, the Namecheap admin page didn't say
anything about the domain having been suspended.
I couldn't find any relevant articles in the support knowledgebase, so I
opened an emergency ticket with Namecheap support. They responded in an
hour, and helped to resolve the problem immediately. They did admit that
I didn't receive a notification because of an error on their part:
We have double-checked contact details on the domain in question and
registrant details appeared to be missing on the domain due to a
one-time glitch at our end. That is the reason you have not received
verification email. Please accept our most genuine apologies for the
inconvenience caused you.
I have always found Namecheap support to be responsive and helpful. I do
appreciate their candour and the prompt response in this case as well,
but I am deeply shaken that their system has no controls in place to
prevent a domain from being suspended without any sort of notification
(especially since they were sending me notifications about other domains
registered under the same account in the same time period).
I don't know when exactly the domain was suspended. I have actually lost
mail because of this incident—and at least one of them was an important
response to some mail I sent. But thanks to my mother's correspondents,
I think the problem was discovered before very long. I cannot afford to
worry about this happening for my other domains that are up for renewal
in the near future. If the same thing had happened to toroid.org, it
would have been catastrophic.
I have been a happy customer of Namecheap for more than five years, and
recommended it to any number of friends during that time. Along with
(which is much more expensive), it's by far the best of the dozen or so
registrars I've used over the past two decades. I have no idea where to
move my domains, but I'll start keeping an eye out for an alternative.
Update, moments after writing the above: my friend Steve points
out that there's something to be said for having a vendor who admits to
their errors honestly; and only a pattern of errors rather than a single
incident would justify moving my domains away to an unknown registrar.
A few days from now, I hope to be able to properly appreciate Steve's
wisdom in this matter. Meanwhile, I'm saved from precipitous actions by
the fact that I haven't the faintest idea where to migrate anyway.